Nowadays, natural sand is running out by the huge demand. The natural sand resources formed by hundreds of thousands of years in many countries and regions are almost exhausted.
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As a result, natural sand costs are getting higher and higher and cannot meet the increasing market demand. In this case, the artificial sand came into being.
Artificial sand, also called crushed sand or mechanical sand m sand, refers to rocks, mine tailings or industrial waste granules with a particle size of less than 4.75 mm. It is processed by mechanical crushing and sieving.
In China, the artificial sand was mainly used in the construction of hydropower systems. For example, the Three Gorges Project and the Yellow River Xiaolangdi Project used artificial sand to prepare concrete. Due to the remote environment of the hydropower project and the high quality of sand and gravel, the projects have taken the materials locally.
Many Indian states have decreed the use of crushed sand in infrastructure construction because of its high compressive strength and cohesion and the adverse environmental effects of river sand mining, which will greatly boost the demand for artificial sand.
There are both natural and human factors in the increasing demand for artificial sand. The former is that the natural sand is about to run out, while human factors include peoples requirements for environmental protection and the need for high-quality concrete.
Despite appearances, we are running out of sand. While that might seem farfetched sandis seemingly everywhere there is not only a thriving international trade in the commodity, but its the second-most heavily exploited natural resource after water and, by volume, the most heavily extracted solid material in the world.
Like any commodity, sand requires uniformity. Uniform sand, or 34aggregate,34 includes gravel, crushed stone and a number of recycled materials, such as crushed concrete, each of which has unique applications. Specialty sands also exist for industries such as golf, volleyball, sports fields, and playgrounds, as well as retail and technical services. Each has unique shape, size, hardness and color specifications.
Sand is formed by erosive processes over thousands of years and, according to a UN Environmental Program UNEP report, is being extracted far more quickly than it can be renewed. While theU.S. imports only about 1 of the totalsand that it uses, according to the United States Geological Survey, developing countries like China and India have had to import significantly larger quantities to meet the demand created by recent construction booms. Sand39s scarcity translates to price appreciation, which makes investing in sand compelling.
The price of sand and gravel has increased dramatically over the last decade, from 7.06 per metric ton in 2007 to 8.80 in 2016. Specialty sands generate even higher prices frac sand, which is used in the process of extracting oil throughhydraulic fracturing, cost about 25 per tonne in 2017 but in times of short supply has climbed to 70 per tonne.
But investing in sand is challenging. Sands weight relative to itsvalue makes itexpensive and challenging to move and store. Investors are also unableto buy or sell futures contracts tied to sand, as they would with other commodities, such as soybeans or oil. As a result, investors interested in deepening their exposure to sand need to look toequity in companies associated with sand production.
Conservative estimates place world sand consumption in excess of 40 billion tonnes a year, according to UNEP. That number is twice that of the annual amount of sediment carried by all of the rivers of the world, which means that mankind is the largest transforming agent in the world with respect to aggregates. Demand is asymmetric Increasing demand is predominantly tied to urban growthin Asia, though it is worth noting that information on global sand consumption, particularly in emerging and frontier markets, is scarce.
Aggregate is the main constituent of both concrete and asphalt. It is also the primary foundation forbuilding roads, parking lots and runways, homes, buildings and landscapes. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, for each metric tonne of cement used, the construction industry needs about six to seven times more tonnes of sand and gravel.
China produces over half the worlds cement, an estimated 2.41 billion metric tons BMT in 2017. Global cement production is expected to increase from 3.27 BMT in 2010 to 4.83 BMT in 2030.
Energy Exploration and Production EampP also consumes vast quantities of sand, mostly due to its use as a primary proppant in hydraulic fracturing. Proppantsare mixed with a liquid to keep fracking wells open and facilitate the removal of oil and natural gas. For scale, individual fracking wells often use seven million pounds of sand, with some requiring up to three times as much. Wells have grown longer and wider since modern-day hydraulic fracking came about in the 1990s.
Frac sand suppliers are highly fragmented, with some 50 producersglobally. In addition to energy producers themselves, frac sand suppliers were among the hardest hit by the shale oil bust beginning mid-2014, asdrilling activity plummeted.Major oil and gas producers saw their market halve, but the carnage among sand suppliers was worse. With the steep decline in rig counts, sand suppliers likeEmerge Energy Services EMES andHi-Crush Partners HCLP saw their stock pricesdepreciate more than 90 from their 2014 highs.
The total demand for aggregates of sand and gravel aggregates in Africa and the Middle East will be slightly higher than the global average speed in South America, many government-supported affordable housing construction will increase the construction industry situation and sand and gravel aggregate demand in the region North America The.
Aggregate is the worlds number-one nonfuel mineral commodity in terms of both volume and value Fig. 9.1. During 1998, worldwide, about 20 billion tons of aggregate worth about 120 billion Euros were produced Wellmer and Becker-Platen, 2002. Worldwide demand is estimated to be rising by 4.7 annually Bleischwitz and Bahn-Walkowiak, 2006.
2. Bonding strength increases due to fineness of artificial sand.Increase in bonding strength results to increase in stiffness. 3. Workability reduces slightly with the replacement of natural sand by artificial sand.To increase the workability plasticizer can be used. 4. Results show that the river sand can be fully replaced by artificial sand.
But people demand for construction is growing. To solve the problem of aggregate demand has become urgent. READ MORE gravel sand making and gravel sand, is indispensable in artificial sand. With the continuous development of new equipment, sand making machine including pebbles sand, perlite sand, granite sand making machine etc The sand.
Environmental factors and a shortage of good quality river sand has led to the invention of Manufactured Sand Also known as M Sand or Robo Sand.
Angular and has a rougher texture. Angular aggregates demand more water. Water demand can be compensated with cement content.
Moisture is trapped in between the particles which are good for concrete purposes.
Higher concrete strength compared to river sand used for concreting.
Minimum permissible silt content is 3. Anything more than 3 is harmful to the concrete durability. We can expect 5 20 slit content in medium quality river sand.
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