There are more than twenty types of cement used to make various specialty concrete, however the most common is Portland cement.
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Clinker quality depends on raw material composition, which has to be closely monitored to ensure the quality of the cement. Excess free lime, for example, results in undesirable effects such as volume expansion, increased setting time or reduced strength. Several laboratory and online systems can be employed to ensure process control in each step of the cement manufacturing process, including clinker formation.
Manufacturing Cement Grinding The clinker is combined with small quantity of gypsum and then it is finely ground in a separate mill to get the final product. The mill is a large revolving cylinder containing steel balls that is driven by a motor.
Read XRFXRD Combined Instrumentation Can Provide Complete Quality Control of Clinker and Cement to learn more about technology that combines the advantages of both XRF and XRD together.
Cross Belt Analyzers based on Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis PGNAA technology are installed directly on the conveyor belt to measure the entire material stream continuously and in real time to troubleshoot issues in pre-blending stockpile control and quarry management, raw mix proportioning control, and material sorting. Read PGNAA Improves Process and Quality Control in Cement Production to learn what makes PGNAA particularly suited for cement analysis.
Accurate cement production also depends on belt scale systems to monitor output and inventory or regulate product loadout, as well as tramp metal detectors to protect equipment and keep the operation running smoothly. The Cement Manufacturing Process flow chart sums up where in the process each type of technology is making a difference.
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Module 5 Cement grinding and dispatch. Finishing the cement manufacturing process and satisfying the end-customer. Lectures in this module Session 5.1 Developing Fineness Session 5.2 Classification and Separation Session 5.3 Gypsum dehydration and temperature control Session 5.4 Blended cements, grinding aids and quality improvers.
In the manufacturing of cement, the following three important and distinct operations occur.
The process, by which cement is manufactured, depends upon the technique adopted in the mixing of raw materials. Therefore, on the basis of mixing the raw materials, the processes may be classified as-.
The Raw material, which is used for manufacturing of cement, contains the following materials.
When the raw materials are soft , then the wet process is preferably to be used. The cement is manufactured by the following procedure-.
Burning In this operation, the slurry is directly fed into a long inclined steel cylinder called Rotary kiln. Inthis kiln there are 3 different zones shown in fig. below.
I Drying Zones In the wet process, the drying zone is comparatively larger than dry process. In is because the raw material in slurry form is directly fed into the kiln which has more amount of water. As shown in the figure it is the upper portion of the kiln . In this zone, water is evaporated at temperature 100-400C.
Ii Formations of modules As the slurry gradually descends in the kiln , the carbon di oxide from slurry evaporates and small lumps formed which may be called as modules.
Iii Burning Zone- The modules enter in this zone where temperatures is kept about 1400-1500 C. The modules are converted into dark greenish balls and the product obtained in the kiln , known as clinker, is of varying size 5 to 20 mm. The clinkers are very hot when come out from this zone.
Iv Cooling of Clinkers- As shown in figure another rotary kiln is provided in an opposite direction which is also inclined. It is used for cool down the clinkers up to about 90C.
The raw cement ingredients needed for cement production are limestone calcium, sand and clay silicon, aluminum, iron, shale, fly ash, mill scale and bauxite. The ore rocks are quarried and crushed to smaller pieces of about 6 inches. Secondary crushers or hammer mills then reduce them to even smaller size of 3 inches. After that, the ingredients are prepared for pyroprocessing.
The crushed raw ingredients are made ready for the cement making process in the kiln by combining them with additives and grinding them to ensure a fine homogenous mixture. The composition of cement is proportioned here depending on the desired properties of the cement. Generally, limestone is 80 and remaining 20 is the clay. In the cement plant, the raw mix is dried moisture content reduced to less than 1 heavy wheel type rollers and rotating tables blend the raw mix and then the roller crushes it to a fine powder to be stored in silos and fed to the kiln.
A pre-heating chamber consists of a series of cyclones that utilizes the hot gases produced from the kiln in order to reduce energy consumption and make the cement making process more environment-friendly. The raw materials are passed through here and turned into oxides to be burned in the kiln.
The kiln phase is the principal stage of the cement production process. Here, clinker is produced from the raw mix through a series of chemical reactions between calcium and silicon dioxide compounds. Though the process is complex, the events of the clinker production can be written in the following sequence.
The above events can be condensed into four major stages based on the change of temperature inside the kiln.
The kiln is angled by 3 degrees to the horizontal to allow the material to pass through it, over a period of 20 to 30 minutes. By the time the raw-mix reaches the lower part of the kiln, clinker forms and comes out of the kiln in marble-sized nodules.
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